محیط رسوبی و چینه‌نگاری سکانسی سازند داریان در میدان گازی پارس جنوبی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد، دانشگاه تهران

2 استاد، گروه زمین شناسی دانشگاه تهران

3 دانشجوی دکترای، دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

 
سازند داریان یکی از مهم­ترین سنگ مخزن­های هیدروکربوری در میدان گازی پارس جنوبی است. با توجه به گسترش زیاد اربیتولین­ها در این توالی­ها، بخش عمده­ای از آنالیزهای رخساره­ای بر اساس ویژگی­های دیرینه بوم­شناسی اربیتولین­ها انجام شده است، بررسی رخساره­ای در چاه­هایSPOaو SPOb نشان می­دهد که سازند داریان در این میدان، ماهیت بافتی و رسوبی کاملاً متفاوت نسبت به مقطع تیپ و بخش­های دیگر حوضه­ی زاگرس دارد. بررسی­های دقیق رسوب­شناسی این واحدها و مقایسه­ی آن­ها با سازند شوئیبا(معادل داریان در کشورهای عربی) در گنبد شمالی و تلفیق آن­ها با جغرافیای دیرینه­ی آپتین حاکی از آن است که سازند داریان در پلاتفرم کربناته رمپ در یال پشت به باد حوضه­ی اینتراشلف نهشته شده است.با تکیه بر روش­های متفاوتی از چینه­نگاری سکانسی سعی شده است ضمن تلفیق تغییرات رخساره­ای با نمودار لاگ گاما و کنش متقابل زیستمندان به نوسانات سطح آب، دسته­های رخساره­ای هرچاه مشخص شده که دید مناسبی جهت مهندسی مخزن ایجاد می‌کند. بررسی تغییرات عمودی رخساره­های سازند داریان نشان می­دهد که در کل این چینه­ها شامل یک سکانس رده سوم و یک دسته رخساره­ای HST از واحد زیرین می­باشد.
 
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Depositional Environment and sequence stratigraphy of Dariyan Formation in the South Pars Gas field

نویسندگان [English]

  • M Amiri 1
  • H Rahimpour-Bonab, 2
  • A Asadi 3
  • M Sarfi 1
1 M.Sc. Student, University of Tehran
2 Professor, Departement of Geology, University of Tehran
3 Ph.D Student, University of Tehran
چکیده [English]

Dariyan Formation is one of the most important hydrocarbon reservoirs of the South Pars gas field. Since abundance of Orbitolina family in these strata, our microfacies analyses are mainly based on their paleoecological characteristics. As shown by microfacies analysis in the SPOa and SPOb wells, depsoitinal and textural nature of the Dariyan Formation in this field are entirely different from its type section and the other parts of the Zagros Basin. Detialed sedimentological studies of this unit, its comparison with the Shuaiba Formation (equivalent of the Dariyan Formation in Arabian countries) in the north dome and compilation of these data with the paleogeographic features of Aptian, all are representing a regional carbonate ramp that was bordering an intrashelf leeward flank )leeward ramp(. Employing different techniques, sequence stratigraphic study is carried out. In this approach facies association variations along with the gamma ray data and biota response to the sea-level fluctuations, are complied to recognize different system tracts in each well. This approach gives a good perspective for reservoir engineering. Vertical facies changes in the Darian Formation show that, on the whole, these strata represent a thirdorder sequence and a HST that belongs to the lower unit.
 
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Dariyan Formation
  • Orbitolina
  • Ramp
  • Intrashelf
  • System tract

 

1-             آقانباتی، ع. ، ١٣٨٣،  زمین­شناسی ایران، سازمان زمین­شناسی و اکتشافات معدنی، ٥٨٦ ص.

2-            صفری، ف.، (1386). میکروبیواستراتیگرافی سازند داریان در برشهای سیوند و دشتک در ناحیه فارس و تطابق آن با چاه سروستان -3. پایان نامه کارشناسی ارشد دانشگاه تهران، 165 صفحه.

3-                  Aigner, T., M., Schauer, W-D. Junghans,  and L., Reinhardt 1995, Outcrop gamma-ray logging and its applications: examples from the German Triassic: Sedimentary Geology,v. 100, p. 47-61.

4-                  Al-Ghamdi, N. M , 2006, Facies, Sequence Framework, and Evolution of RudistBuildups, Shuaiba Formation, Saudi Arabia: MSc thesis, Blacksburg, Virginia, May 19, 2006.

5-                  Alsharhan , A. S. and A. E, Nairn 1997, Carbonate Pltform Model of Arabian Cretaceous Reservoirs in Sedimentary basins and petroleum of the Middle East: Elsevier, chapter 15.

6-                  Alsharhan, A.S., and A.E.M., Nairn 1986,  A review of the Cretaceous formations in the Arabian Peninsula and Gulg: Part 1.Lower Cretaceous (Thamama Group) stratigraphy and paleogeography: J. Pet.Geol., v.9; p. 365-92.

7-                  Banner, F. T. and M. D., Simmons 1994, Calcareous algae and foraminifera as water-depth indicators: an example from the Early Cretaceous carbonates of northeast Arabia, In: Micropalaeontology and Hydrocarbon Exploration in the Middle East (Ed. M.D. Simmons), pp. 243–252, British Micropalaeontol. Soc. Publ. Series. Chapman & Hall, London.

8-                  Banner, F.T., E. M., Finch M. D., Simmons 1990, On Lithocodium Elliott (calcareous algae); its paleobiological and stratigraphical significance,J. Micropaleont. v.9, p. 21–36.

9-                  Bernaus: J. M., A. A., Vanneau, and E., Caus 2003, Carbonate platform sequencestratigraphy in a rapidly subsiding area: the Late Barremian–Early Aptian of the Organya basin: Spanish Pyrenees Sedimentary Geology, v. 159, p. 177–201.

10-              Bosellini, A., 1999, Stratigraphic evidence for an Early Aptian sea-level fluctuation: the  Graua Limestone of south-eastern Ethiopia: Cretaceous Research, v. 20,  p.783–791.

11-              Burchette, T. P. and V. P., Wright 1992, Carbonate ramp depositional systems: Sedimentary Geology, v.79, p. 3.

12-              Buxton, M. W. N. and Pedley 1989, a standardized model for Tethyan Tertiary carbonate ramps: Journal of the Geological Society, v. 146, p. 746-748.

13-              Catuneanu, O, 2006, Principles of Sequence Stratigraphy: (first Edition) Elsevier, Amsterdam. 375p.

14-              Cherchi, A., and R., Schroeder, 2006, Remarks on the systematic position of Lithocodium Elliott a problematic microorganism from the Mesozoic carbonate platforms of the Tethyan realm: Faciesv.  52, p. 435–440.

15-              Cherechi,  A., and  R.,  Schroder  2004, Evolution  of  orbitolinid  foraminifers  and  anoxic event  A comment  on  an  article  by  J,Guex, Eclogae  geol.helv.  94  (2001). Eclogae  Geol. Helv, v. 97; p. 441 – 444.

16-              Conrad, M. A., and B., Clavel 2008, A Lithocodium and Bacinella signature of a late Hauterivian, local microbial event: the Urgonian limestone in South-East France: Geologia Croatica, v. 61, p. 239–250.

17-              Elliott G. F., 1956, further records of fossil calcareous algae from the Middle East: Micropaleontology, v. 2; p. 327–334.

18-               Embry, A.F., J.E., Klovan 1971, A late Devonian reef tracton northeastern Banks Island: N.W.T. - Bull. CanadianPetrol. Geol., v. 19, p.730-781.

19-               Emery D., and K. J., Myers 1996, Sequence stratigraphy: Oxford, UK7 Blackwell, 297. P.

20-               Flügel, E., 2004, Microfacies of Carbonate Rocks: Analysis, Interpretation and Application: Springer Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, 976 p.

21-               Greselle, B., B., Pittet 2005, Fringing carbonate platform at the Arabian Plate marginin northern Oman during the Late Aptian-Middle Albian: Evidence for highamplitudesea-level changes: Sedimentary Geology, v. 175, p. 367-390.

22-               Heydari, E., 2008, Tectonics versus eustatic control on supersequences of the Zagros Mountains of Iran: Tectonophysics, v. 451,  p. 56–70.

23-               Hosseini, S. A, and M. A., Conrad 2008, Calcareous algae, foraminifera and sequence stratigraphy of the Fahliyan Formation at Kuh-e-Surmeh (Zagros Basin, SW of Iran): Geologia Croatica, p. 215 –237.

24-               Hosseinyar, G. H., H., Rahimpour-Bonab, A., Asadi Esksndar and M., Asgharian Rostami 2009, Survey of the diagenesis process and effect these process on reservoir quality of the Kangan formation in South Pars Field, Nature Precedings.

25-               Hottinger, L., 1982, larger foraminifera, giant cells with a historical background: Naturwissenschaften, v. 69, p. 361.

26-               Hughes, G. W., 2000, Bioecostratigraphy of the Shu’aiba Formation, Shaybah field, Saudi Arabia, GeoArabia,  v. 5, p. 4.

27-               Hunt, D., and M. E., Tucker 1995, Stranded parasequences and theforced regressive wedge systems tract: deposition during baselevelfall – reply: Sedimentary Geology, v. 95, p. 147–160.

28-               parasequences and the forced regressive wedge systems tract: deposition during baselevel fall: Sedimentary Geology, v. 81, p. 1–9.

29-              Husinec, A.,  I., Velic´, L., Fucek, I., Vlahovic, D., Maticec, O., stric and T., Korbar 2000, Mid Cretaceous orbitolinid (Foraminiferida) record from the islands of Cres and Losinj Croatia) and its regional stratigraphic:  Cretaceous Research correlation, v. 21, p. 155–171.

30-              Husinec, A., and B., Sokac 2006, Early Cretaceous benthic associations (foraminifera and calcareous algae) of a shallow tropical-water platform environment (Mljet Island, southern Croatia): Cretaceous Research, v. 27, p. 418-441.

31-               Immenhauser, A., W., Schlager, S. J., Burns,  R. W. , Scott, T., Geel, J. , Lehmann, S., Van der Gaast, and L. J. A., Bolder Schrijwer 1999, Late Aptian to Late Albian sea-level fluctuations constrained by geochemical and biological evidence (Nahr Umr Formation, Oman): J. Sed. Res, v. 69, p. 434–466.

32-               Kastner, M., I., Schulke, J., Winsemann 2008, Facies architecture of a Late Jurassic carbonate ramp: the Korallenoolith of the Lower Saxony Basin: Int J Earth Sci (Geol Rundsch), v. 97, p. 991–1011.

33-               Krobicki, M.,  and  B., Olszewska 2005, Urgonian-type microfossils in exotic pebbles of the Late Cretaceous and Palaeogene gravelstones from the Sromowce and Jarmuta formations (Pieniny Klippen Belt, Polish Carpathians): Studia Geologica Polonica, v. 124, p.  215–235.

34-               Loeblich, A.R., and H., Tappan 1987, Foraminiferal genera and their classification,: 2 Vol., 1182 p., Van Nostrand Reinhold Co, New York.

35-               Lucia, G. F., 1990, Carbonate Reservoir Characterization: ISBN, v. 964, p. 4865.

36-               Mancinelli, A., M., Chiocchini,  and B., Coccia  2003, Orbitolinidae and Alveolinidae (Foraminiferida) fromthe uppermost Albian-lower Cenomanian of Monti d’Ocre (Abruzzi, Italy): Cretaceous Research, v. 24, p. 729–741.

37-              Matsumaru, K ., 2005, Praeorbitolinoides, a new Orbitolinid foraminiferal genus from the  Lower Aptian (Cretaceous) of Hokkaido, Japan. Micropaleontology, v. 51, p. 93-99.

38-              Michelsen, O., and M., Danielsen 1996, Sequence and systems tract interpretation of the epicontinental Oligocene deposits in the Danish North Sea: Geological Society, London,Special Publications 1996, v. 117, p. 1-13.

39-              Mitchum, R. M., 1977, Glossary of terms used in seismic stratigraphy, In: Payton, C. Z (ed.): nSeismic stratigraphy_applications to hydrocarbon exploration, Amer. Ass. PetrolGeol. Bull, v. 26, p.  205-212.

40-              Murris, R. J., 1980, The Middle East: stratigraphic evolution and oil habitat: American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 64, p. 597–618.

41-              Moullade, M., B., Peybernes, J., Rey and  P., Saint-Marc 1985, Biostratigraphic interest and paleobiogeographic distribution of early and mid-Cretaceous Mesogean orbitolinids (Foraminiferida): Journal of Foraminiferal Research, v. 15, p. 149–158.

42-               Olivier, N., B., Pittet, W., Werner, P., Hantzpergue, C., Gaillard 2008, Facies distribution and coral-microbialite reef development on a low -energy carbonate ramp (Chay Peninsula, Kimmeridgian and western France: Sedimentary Geology, v. 205, p. 14–33

43-               Pittet. B., S., Frans, P., Van Buchem, H., Hillgartner,  P., Razin,  J., Grotsgh,  H., Drostes  2002, Ecological succession, palaeoenvironmental change, Ecological succession, palaeoenvironmental change of Barremian – Aptian  shallow-water carbonates in northern Oman: Sedimentology, v. 49, p. 555–581.

44-               Posamentier, H. W.,  M. T., Jervey, and P. R., Vail 1988, Eustatic controls on clastic deposition, I. Conceptual framework. In: Wigus, C.K. (Editor). Sea-Level Change: An Integrated Approach; Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists Special Publication, v. 42, p. 110-124.

45-               Reiss, Z., and L., Hottinger 1984, the Gulf of Aqaba. Ecological Micropaleontology: Springer, Berlin, 283.

46-               Schroeder R., 1964, Orbitoliniden-biostratigraphie des Urgon  nordostlich  von Ternel (Spanien). Neues  Jahrbuch  fur  Geologie  und  Palaontologie,  Monatshefte,  p. 462- 474.

47-               Schroeder, R., 1975,  General  evolutionary trends  Orbitolinas . Rev. Espanola micropal .Numero  Especial, p. 117-123.

48-               Selly, R., 1939, Ancient Sedimentaray Environments: ISBN. 964-03-4488-5.

49-               Sampo, M., 1969, Microfacies and Microfossils of the Zagros area. Southwestern Iran (from Pre-Permian-Miocen).E.J. Brill, Leiden, 102 p.

50-               Scott, R., W., 1990a, Chronostratigraphy of the Cretaceous carbonate shelf, southeastern Arabia. In: A.H.F, Robertson, M.P. Searle and A.C. Ries (Eds.), The Geology and Tectonics of the Oman Region: Geol.Soc.Sep.Publ., v. 49, p. 89-108.

51-               Shakib, S.S., 1994, Palaeoenvirenmental and biostrathigraphic significance of foraminiferal associations from the early Cretaceous sediments of southwest Iran. Micropalaeontology and Hydrocarbon Exploration in the Middle East, p. 129-149.

52-               Simmons, M.D., and M.B., Hart, 1987,  The biostratigraphy and microfacies of the Early to mid-Cretaceous carbonate of Wadia Miaidin, Central Oman Mountain.In M. B. Hart(Ed.) Micropalaeontology of Carbonate Environment, Harwood. Chichester, 176-207.

53-               Simmons. M. D., 1994, Micropalaeontological biozonation of the Kahmah Group (Early Cretaceous), Centeral Oman Mountains. In: Micropalaeontology  and Hydrocarbon Exploration in the Middle East (Ed. M.D. Simmons), pp. 243–252,  British Micropalaeontol. Soc. Publ. Series. Chapman & Hall, London.

54-              Taylor, S. P., Sellwood, B. W., 2002, the context of lowstand events in the Kimmeridgian (Late Jurassic) sequence stratigraphic evolution of the Wessex–Weald Basin, Southern England: Sedimentary Geology, v. 151, p. 89–106.

55-              Tucker, M.E., and F., Calvet, D., Hunt, 1993, Sequence Stratigraphy of carbonate ramps: system tracts, models and application to Muschelkalk carbonate platform of eastern Spain, In: Posamentier, H.W, Summerhayes, C.P, Haq, B.U and Allen, G.P (Eds.): Sequence Stratigraphy and facies associations: Spec.Publ.Int.Ass Sedimentol, v. 18, p. 397-415.

56-               Tucker, M. E., and V. P., Wright, 1990, Carbonate sedimentology: Blackwell Scientific Publications, 482 p.

57-               Van Wagoner, J. C., R. M. Jr., Mitchum, H. W., Posamentier, and P. R., Vail 1988, Seismic stratigraphy interpretation using sequence stratigraphy:  part 2: key definitions of sequence stratigraphy, in: Atlas of Seismic Stratigraphy (A.W. Bally, Editor): American Association of Petrologists and Geologists Student Geology, v. 27, p. 11-14.

58-              Velic, I., 2007,  Stratigraphy and Palaeobiogeography of Mesozoic Benthic Foraminifera of the Karst Dinarides (SE Europe).

59-              Velic, I., 1988, Lower Cretaceous benthic foraminiferal biostratig raphy of the shallow water carbonates of the Dinarides: Revue de  Pale´obiologie, Volume Spe´cial 2 (Benthos ’86), p.  467– 475.

60-               Velic, I., and  I., Vlahovic´ 1994, Foraminiferal assemblages in the  Cenomanian of the Buzet-  Savudrija area (northwestern Istria, Croatia): Geologia Croatica , v. 47, p. 25–43.

61-               Vilas, L., J. P., Masse, and C., Arias 1995, Orbitolina episodes in carbonate platform evolution the early Aptian model from SE Spain: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology, v. 119, p. 35–45.

62-              Witt. W., and H., Gokdag 1994, Orbitolinid biostratigraphy of the Shuaiba Formation (Aptian), Oman implication for reservoir development. In: Micropalaeontology  and Hydrocarbon Exploration in the Middle East (Ed. M.D. Simmons), pp. 243–252,  British Micropalaeontol. Soc. Publ. Series. Chapman & Hall, London

63-               J. E., Whittaker, R. W., Jones, and F.T., Banner 1998, Key Mesozoic Bentic Forminifera of the middle east. Natural history Museum.