بایواستراتیگرافی و پالئوژئوگرافی سازند های پادها(بخش فوقانی)، خوش ییلاق و مبارک(قاعده) در ناحیه میقان، شمال غرب شاهرود واقع در رشته کوه البرز شرقی

نویسندگان

1 استاد انستیتوی مهندسی نفت، دانشگاه تهران

2 کارشناس ارش دانشگاه پیام نور

چکیده

 
تعداد 104 نمونه از سازندهای پادها (بخش فوقانی)، خوش­ییلاق و مبارک (بخش قاعده‌ای) در ناحیه میقان انتخاب شد. علاوه برپالینومورف‌ها، براکیوپودها و فرامینیفرهای این نمونه‌ها مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. در این مطالعه 103 گونه میکرو و ماکروفسیل جانوری و گیاهی مشخص گردید. از این تعداد 72 گونه پالینومورف (32 گونه میوسپور، 38 گونه آکریتارش، یک کیتینوزوآو یک اسکلوکودونت) می‌باشد و بقیه را ماکرو و میکروفسیل‌های جانوری(10گونه فرامینیفرمتعلق به 5 جنس و 21 گونه براکیوپود متعلق به 15 جنس) تشکیل می‌دهد. بر مبنای انتشار چینه شناسی پالینومورف‌ها، فرامینیفرها و براکیوپودها هشت زون تجمعی شناسایی گردید. زون I در قسمت بالای سازند پادها ظاهر می‌شود که معرف زمان فراسنین پیشین است. زون‌های II  تا VII در سازند خوش ییلاق وجود دارند که زمان فراسنین میانی تا فامنین پسین را برای این سازند پیشنهاد می‌کنند. زون VIII در قاعده‌ی سازند مبارک وجود دارد که بیانگر سن کربونیفر پیشین(تورنزین) می‌باشد.
وجود گونه‌ی میوسپور Archaeoperisaccus opiparus در بخش فوقانی سازند پادها و گونه‌های مختلف میوسپور از جمله Retispora lepidophyta، Vallatisporites pusillites، Hymenozonotriletes perplexa و Retusotriletes phillipsii در سازند خوش­ییلاق، معرف آب و هوای گرم و استوایی در زمان ته‌نشین شدن این دو سازند می‌باشد.
از سویی دیگر نسبت عددی پالینومورف‌های خشکی به دریایی (K= C.E./M.E.)در رسوبات دونین برابر 587/1  می‌باشد که این عدد بیانگر ته‌نشست رسوبات دونین در دریای کم عمق بوده و با نتایج حاصل از مطالعه رسوب‌شناسی مقاطع نازک ناحیه میقان همخوانی دارد. از طرفی حضور گونه‌های فیتوپلانکتون (آکریتارش‌ها) از قبیل: Deltotosoma intonsum،  Papulogabata annulata وGorgonisphaeridium dicissum و Maranhites perplexus  در این ناحیه و مقایسه‌ی آن‌ها با همین گونه‌ها در زاگرس، ایران مرکزی و نیز کشورهای الجزایر، لیبی، مراکش و غرب استرالیا معرف آن است که این ناحیه بخشی از ابرقاره گندوانا بوده است.  
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Biostratigraphy and paleogeography of Padeha (upper part) Khoshyeilagh and Mobarak (lower part) formations in the Mighan area, norhwestern Shahrud city, Eastern Alborz Range

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Ghavidel Syooki 1
  • Fatemeh Taherian 2
1 professor, Petroleum Engineering Institute University of Tehran
2 M.Sc. of Paleontology Payame Noor University
چکیده [English]

A total of 104 surface samples were selected from the measured stratigraphic column (upper part of Padeha, Khoshyeilagh and Lower part of Mobarak formations) in the Mighan village. The samples were analyzed in the palynological Laboratory for palynomorph entities in order to determine the age relationships of the upper part of Padeha Formation and the whole Khoshyeilagh Formation as well as the lower part of Mobarak Formation. In addition to palynomorphs, brachiopod and foraminiferal taxa were investigated in this study. A total of 103 fauna and micro floral species was identified, belonging to 72 palynomorph species (46 genera). Out of 72 palynomorph taxa 32 species belong to miospore group, 38 species related to acritarch group, one chitinozoan and one scolecodont. Moreover, 5 micro faunal genera (10 species) and 21 macro faunal spcies (15 genera) were encountered. Based on stratigraphic distributions of palynomorphs, foraminifers and brachiopods taxa eight assemblage zones were established. The zone I occurs in the upper part of the Padeha Formation and suggests the early Frasnian. The zones of II to VII are present within the Khoshyeilagh Formation and reveals the Middle Frasnian to late Famennian. The zone VIII occurs in the basal part of Mobarak Formation and suggests Early Carboniferous (Tournaisian) for this part of Mobarak Formation.  The presence of miospore species of Archaeoperisaccus opiparus in the upper part of Padeha Formation and miospore spcies of Vallatisporites pusillites, Retispora lepidophyta, Retusotriletes phillipsii and Hymenozonotriletes perplexa in the Khoshyeilagh Formation suggest a  tropical latitude during the Late Devonian in the study area. On the other hand, based upon the continental elements vs. the marine elements(K=C.E./M.K.) is 1.587, suggesting a shallow marine environment, which is consistent with the sedimentological data. On the other hand, the presence acritarch taxa such as Deltotosoma intosum, Gorgonisphaeridium dicissum, Papulogobata annulata and Maranhites perplexus in the Devonian sediments were compared with those of Zagros, Central Iran, Algeria, Libya, Morocco and Western Australia suggesting broad similarity. This similarity reveals that all part of Iran has been part of Gondwana landmass during the Late Devonian.
 
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Devonian sediments
  • Khoshyeilagh Formation
  • Upper part of Padeha Formation
  • Mighan area
  • Northwestern shahrud

 

1- Al-Ghazi, A., 2007, New evidence for the Early Devonian age of the Jauf Formation in northern Saudi Arabia: Revue de Micropaléontologie, v. 50, Issue 1, p. 59-72.

2- Anan-Youke, R., 1974, Devonian Chitinozoa and Acritarchs from exploratory oil wells on the Shelf and coastal region of Ghana, West Africa: Geol., Surv., Bul. 37, p.1-216.

3- Avkhimovitch, V.I., E.V., Tchibrikova, T.G., Obukhovskaya, A.M., Nazarenko, V.T., Umnova, L.G., Raskatova, V.N., Mantsurova, S., Loboziak, and M., Streel, 1993, Middle and Upper Devonian Miospore Zonation of Eastern Europe: Bulletin des Centres de Recherches Exploration-Production elf Aquitaine, v. 17, N.1, p. 78-147.

4- Balme, B.E.,  and C. W., Hassel, 1962, Upper Devonian spore from the Canning Basin, Western Australia: Micropalaeontology, No.1, p.1-28.

5- Balme, B.E., 1988, Miospore From Late Devonian (Early Frasnian) Strata, Carnarvon Basin, Western Australia: Paleontographica, Lfg. 4-6, Band 209, p. 109-166.

6- Beju. D., 1967, Quelques spores, acritarches et chitinozoaires d'âge dévonien inférieur de la plate-forme moesienne (Roumanie), Original Research Article: Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, v. 5, Issues 1-4, p. 39-49.  

7- Becker, G., M.J.M., Bless, M., Streel, and J., Thorez, 1974, Palynology and ostracoddistribution in the Upper Devonian and basal Dinantian of Belgium and theirdependence on sedimentary facies: Mededelingen Rijks Geologische Dienst, N.S. 25, p. 9–99.

8- Bozorgnia, ­F., 1973, Paleozoic­ Foraminifera­ Biostratigraphy of­­ Central­ and­ East-Alborz Mountions, Iran': Nation­ Iranian oil Company, Geological Labratories, Pablication. No. 4, p.185.

9- Brice, D., 1971, Etude paleontologique et stratigraphique du Devonian de L Afghanistan, Contribution A La connaissance des brachiopods et des polypiersrugueux, 364 p.

10- Bykova, E.V. and E.I., Polenova, 1995, Foraminiefers et Radiolaires de la region Volga-Oural, et du basin Devonien central et leurimportance stratigraphic: Trav. VNIGRI, USSR, n.s.no. 47, p. 141, pl. I-XXIV, Trad.B.R.G.M. no. 1603.

11- Clayton, G., K. Higgs, and J.B., Keegan, 1977, Late Devonian and Early Carboniferous occurrences of the miospore Genus Emphanisporites McGregor, 1961 in Southern Ireland, Pollen et Spores, v. 19(3), p. 415-425.

12- Clayton, G., B., Owens, S., Al-Hajri and J., Filatoff, 2000, Latest Devonian and Early Carboniferous miospore assemblages from Saudi Arabia.In: Al-Hajri, S., Owens, B. (Eds.), Stratigraphic palynology of the Palaeozoic of Saudi Arabia: GeoArabia, Bahrain, Special Publication, v. 1, p. 146–153.

13- Clendening, J.A., L.E., Eames and G., Wood, 1980, Retusotriletes phillipsii n. sp., a potential Upper Devonian guide palynomorph, Palynology, v. 4, p. 15-22.

14- Coquel, R., and  S., Latreche, 1989, Etude palynologique du La formation D'herence (Devono-Carbonifere du basin d'lIizi Sahara Algerin oriental): Paleontographica, Abt. 212, p. 47-70.

15- Cramer, F. H., 1964, Microplankton from three Paleozoic formations in the province of leon (northwest Spain): Leidse Geologische Mededelingen, v. 30, p. 254-361.

16- Deflandre, G., 1945, Fichier micropaleontologique serie 8. Hystrichoshaerides III. Especes du Primaire: Archives originales, Centre de documentation, centre national de recherché scientifique, France, no. 257, p. I-V, Piches 1096-1185.

17- Deunff, J., 1961, Un micropalancton a hystrichospheres dans le Tremadoc du Sahara: Rev. Micropaleont., v. 1(4), p. 37-52.

18- Dolby, G., 1970, Spore assemblages from the Devonian-Carboniferous transition measures in south-west Britain and southern Eire: Colloque sur la Stratigraphie du Carbonif`ere, Congr`es et Colloques, Universit´e de Li´ege, v. 55, p. 267–274.

19- Dolby, G., and R., Neves, 1970, Palynological evidence concerning the Devonian Carboniferous boundary in the Mendips, England (Sheffield, 1967): Compte Rendu du 6e Congr`es International de Stratigraphie et G´eologie du Carbonif`ere, v. 2, p. 631–646.

20- Filipiak, P., 2004, Miospore stratigraphy of Upper Famennian and Lower Carboniferous deposits of the Holy Cross Mountains (central Poland): Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, v. 128, Issues 3-4, p. 291-322. 

21- Filipiak, P., 2005, Late Devonian and Early Carboniferous acritarchs and prasinophytes from the Holy Cross Mountains (central Poland): Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, v. 134, Issues 1-2, p. 1-26.

22- Geo, L., 1986, Late Devonian and early Carboniferous acritarchs from Nyalum Country, Xizang (Tibet), China: Rev.Palaeobot. Plyno1, v. 47, p. 17-30.

23- Ghavidel-Syooki, M., 1994, Upper Devonian Acritarchs and Miospores from the Geirud Formation in Central Alborz Range, Northern Iran: Journal of Sciences Islamic Republic of Iran, v.­5, No.3, p.103-122.

24- Ghavidel-Syooki, M., 1995, Palynostratigraphy and palaeogeography of a Palaeozoic sequence in the Hassanakdar area, Central Alborz Range, Northern Iran: Review of palaeobotany and palynology, v. 86, p. 91-109.

25- Ghavidel-Syooki, M., 1996, Palynostratigraphy and paleogeography of  the Late Devonian in northeastern Esfahan city, Central Iran: Proceeding of the IX international palynological congress, Houston, Texas, U. S. A.

26- Ghavidel-Syooki, M., 2003, Palynostratigraphy of  Devonian sediments in the Zagros Basin, southern Iran: Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, v. 127, Issues 3-4, p. 241-268.    

27- Ghavidel-Syooki, M., and B., Owens, 2007, Palynostratigraphy and palaeogeography of the Padeha, Khoshyeilagh and Mobarak formations in the eastern Alborz Range (Kopeh-Dagh region), northeastern Iran: Revue de Micropaleontology, v. 50(1), p. 129-144.

28- González, F., 2009, Reappraisal of the organic-walled microphytoplankton genus Maranhites: morphology, excystment, and speciation: Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, v. 154, Issues 1-4, p. 6-21.

29- Gorka, H., 1974, Les acritarches de concretions calacries de Famennian superior de Lagow (Mounts do Sauinte croix, pdog): Actapal a contogica pololnica, v. 19, p. 225-250.

30- Grahn, Y., 2010, Palynostratigraphy of the Chapada Group and its significance in the Devonian stratigraphy of the Paraná Basin, south Brazil: Journal of South American Earth Sciences, v. 29, Issue 2, p. 354-370.

31- Grahn, Y., and J.G., Henrique, 2003, Devonian–Early Carboniferous miospore biostratigraphy of the Amazon Basin, Northern Brazil: Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, v. 124, Issues 3-4, p. 131-202.

32- Grey, K., 1991, A mid-Givetian miospore age for the onset of reef development on the Lennard Shelf, Canning Basin, Western Australia: Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology. v. 68, Issues 1-2, p. 37-4826.

33- Hemer, D. O., and P. W., Nygreen, 1967, Devonian palynology of Saudi Arabia, Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol, v. 5, p. 51-61.

34- Higgs, K. T., 1975, Upper Devonian and Lower Carboniferous miospore assemblage from Hook Head, Ireland: Micropalaeontology, v. 21(4), p. 393-419.

35- Higgs, K.T., G.,Clayton,  and J.B., Keegan, 1988, Stratigraphic and Systematic Palynology of the Tournaisian rocks of Ireland, Special Geological Survey of  Ireland,  p. 7, 5–93.

36- Higgs, K. T., 1996, Taxonomy and systematic study of some Tournaisian (Hastarian) spores from Belgium, Riew of Palaeobotany and Palynology, v. 93, Issues 1-4, p. 269-297.

37- Higgs, K. T., D., Finucane, and I. P., Tunbridge, 2002, Late Devonian and early Carboniferous microfloras from the Hakkarı Province of southeastern Turkey: Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, v. 118, Issues 1-4, p. 141-156.

38- Hashemi, H.,  and G., Playford, 1998, Upper Devonian Palynomorph of the Shishtu Formation, Central Iran Basin, east-central Iran: Abt., Palaeontographica, B. 246, p.115-212.

39- Hodgson, E. A., 1968, Devonian Spores from the Pertnjara formation, Amadeus Basin: thern Territory-Bulltine Bureau of Mineral Resurces, Geology & Geophysics, v. 80, p. 67-82.

40- Jardine, S., A., Combaz, L., Maglorie, Peniguel, and G., Vachey, 1972, Acritarchs du Silurian terminal, et du Devonian Sahara Algerian, Compte Rendu, Septieme Congress International de Stratigraphie ed de Geologie du Carbonifer,(Krefeld, 1971). v. 1, p. 295-311.

41- Keegan, J.B. ,1997, Late Devonian and Early Carboniferous miospores from the Galley Head-Leap Harbour region of southwest Ireland: Pollen et Spores, v.19, p. 545–573.

42- Kimyai, A., 1979, Devonian spores from the Hassanakdar area, Iran: Pollen et Spores, v. 21, p. 41-49.

43- Lianda, G., 1981, Devonian spore assemblages of China: Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, v. 34, Issue 1, p. 11-23.

44- Lianda, G., 1986, Late Davonian and Early Carboniferous Acritarch from Nyalum, China: Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol, VA 7, p. 17-30.

45- Lipina, O.A., 1965, Systematics of the Tournayellidae: Acad. Sci. of USSR, Geol. Inst. Transaction v. 130, p. 1-96, pl. I-XXIV.

46- Loboziak, S., M., Streel, M., Caputo, J., Henrique, and J., Melo, 1991, Evidence of west Europeandefined miospore Zones in the Uppermost Devonian and Lower Carboniferous of  the Amazonas Basin (Brazil): Geobios, v. 24, Issue 1, p. 5-11.

47- Marshall, J., A.M., Miller, J., Filatoff, and KH., Alshahab, 2007. Two new Middle Devonian megaspores from Saudi Arabia Deux nouvelles mégaspores du Dévonien moyen d’Arabie Saoudite: Revue de Micropaléontologie, v. 50, Issue 1, p. 73-79.

48- Marynowski, L., P., Filipiak,  and A., Pisarzowska, 2008, Organic geochemistry and palynofacies of the Early–Middle Frasnian transition (Late Devonian) of the Holy Cross Mountains, Southern Poland: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v. 269, Issues 3-4, p. 152-165.

49- Maziane, N., K.T., Higgs, and M.,Streel, 2002, Biometry and paleoenvironment of Retispora lepidophyta (Kedo) Playford, 1976 and associated miospores in the latest Famennian nearshore marine facies, eastern Ardenne (Belgium): Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, v. 118, Issues 1-4, p. 211-222.

50- McGregor, D.C.,1961, Spores with proximal radial pattern from the Devonian of Canada: Geol. Survey Canada, Bull., v.79, p.1-11.

51- McGregor, D. C., and G., Playford, 1992,  Canadaian and Australian Devonian spores zonation and correlation: Geological Surv. Can, Bull, 438, p. 1-120.

52- McNestry, A., 1988, The palynostratigraphy of two uppermost Devonian-lower carboniferous borehole sections in South Wales: Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, v. 56, Issues 1-2, p. 69-78, 81-87.

53- Moreau-Benoit, A., R., Coquel, and S., Latreche, 1993, Étude palynologique du dévoniendu bassin d'illizi (Sahara oriental algérien). Approche biostratigraphique: Geobios, v. 26, Issue 1, p. 3-31.

54- Moeller, V. V., 1880, Ueber einige Foraminiferen fuhrende Gesteine Persiens: Jahrb. Kais. Koen. Geol. Reichsanstalt, Bd. 30, Heft. IV, pp. 573-586, Taf. IX-X.

55- Naumova, N. S., 1953, Upper Devonian spore-pollen assemblages of the Russian Platform and their straitigraphic significance (in Russian): Trance. Inst Geol. Sci. Acand. Sci. USSR, v. 143, p. 1-204.

56- Nautiyal, A. C., 1975, Occurrence of microplankton in the middle Devonian rocks of  Soskatchewan and Alberta: Canada Current Sci, v. 44, p. 851-853.

57- Obukhovskaya, T.G., 2000, Miospores from the Frasnian–Famennian Boundary deposits in Eastern Europe (the Pripyat Depression, Belarus and the Timan–Pechora Province, Russia) and comparison with Western Europe (Northern France): Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, v. 112, Issue 4, p. 229-246.

58- Ottone, E. G., 1996, Devonian palynomorphs from the Los Monos Formation, Tarija Basin Argentina: Palynology, v. 20, p. 105-155.

59- Owens, B., 1971, Miospore from Middle and Early Upper Devonian rocks of the Western Queen Elizabeth Island, Arctic Archiopelago: Geol. Surv. Can, Bull. 37-70, p. 1-157.

60- Paris, F., J.B., Richardson, W., Riegel, M., Streel, and M., Vanguestaine, 1985, Devonian (Emsian-Famennian) Palynomorphs from North-East Libya: J. Micropalaeontology, v. 4, p. 42-82.

61- Playford, G., 1964, Miospores from the Mississippian Horton Group, Eastern Canada: Geol. Surv. Can. Bull. 107 , p. 47.

62- Playford, G., 1976, Plant microfossils from the Upper Devonian and Lower Carboniferous of the Canning Basin Western Australia: Palaeontographica Abteilung, B. 158, p.1-71.

63- Playford, G., 1977, Lower to Middle Devonian Acritarchs of the Moose River Basin, Ontario: Geological Survey of Canada, Bulletin 279, p. 1-86.

64- Playford, G., 1981, Late Devonian Acritarchs from the Gneudna formation in the Western Carnarvon basin, Western Australia: Geobios, v. 14, Issue 2, p.145-171.

65- Playford, G., Dring, R.S., 1981, Late Devonian Acritarchs from Carnarvon Basin Western Australia: Special Papers in Palaeontology, v. 27, p. 1–78.

66- Playford, G., 1991, Australian Lower Carboniferous miospores relevant to extra- Gondwana correlations: an evaluation. In: Brenckle, P.L., Manger, W.L. (Eds.), Intercontinental Division and Correlation of the Carboniferous System: Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 130, Stuttgart, p. 85–125.

67- Pereira, Z., 2006, Palynostratigraphy of the Toca da mouraa and Cabrela Complexes, Ossa Morena Zone, Portugal. Geodynamic implications: Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, v. 139, Issues 1-4, p. 227-240.

68- Pojarkov, B.V., 1966, Devonian Charophytes in Tien-Shan, in fossil Charophyta of the USSR:Acad. Nauk. SSSR., Trad. Geol. Inst. Trans. No. 143, p.161-200, 10 text-fig.

69- Racka, M., L., Marynowskia, P., Filipiaka, M., Sobstela, A., Pisarzowskab, and D.P.G., Bondc, 2010, Anoxic Annulata Events in the Late Famennian of the Holy Cross Mountains (Southern Poland): Geochemical and palaeontological record: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, In Press, Corrected Proof.

70- Reitlinger, E.A., 1954, Foraminiferes du Devonian de quelques coupes de la partie oriental de la use, VINIGRI: Paleont. Sborn., SSSR., no. 1, pp. 52-81, pl. I-VI, Trad. B.R.G.M., no. 1652.

71- Richardson, J.B., 1965, Middle Old Red Sandstones spore assemblages from the Orcadian Basin, north-east Scotland: Palaeontology, v. 7, p. 559–605.

72- Richardson, J.B., and D.C., McGregor, 1986, Silurian and Devonian Spore Zones of the Old Red Sandstone Continent and Adjacent Regions: Geological Survey of Canada, Bull. 364, p. 1-37.

73- Rauzer, C.D.M., 1948, Foraminiferes et stratigraphie du Viseen et du Namurien des regions centrales de la Plateforme Russe, et du Pre-Oural: Trav. Inst. Geol. Acad. Sci. URSS, no. 62, ser. geol., no. 19, p.102-142.

74- Staplin, F.L., 1961, Reef controlled distribution of Devonian microplankton in Alberta: Palaeontology, v. 4, p. 392–424.

75- Stockmans, F. and Y., Williere, 1960, Hystricospheres du Devonian belge (Sondage de ŀ Asile d alienes? Tournai), Senckenbergiana: Lethaea, v. 41, no. 1-6, p. 1-11, pl. 1-2.

76- Streel, M.,1986, Miospore distributionto the Upper Famennian-Strunian event stratigraphy: Annales de la Societe Geologique du Nord, 105, p. 85-95.

77- Streel, M., K., Higgs, S., Loboziak, W., Reigel, and P., Steemans, 1987, Spore stratigraphy and correlation with faunas and floras in the type marine devonian of the Ardenne-Rhenish regions: Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, v. 50, Issue 3, p. 211-229.

78- Streel. M., and S., Loboziak, 1996, Paleozoic spore and pollen. Chapter 18B. Middle and Upper Devonian miospores. In Jansonius, J., McGregor, D.C. (Eds.), Palynology, principles and applications: American Association of Stratigraphic Palynologists Foundation 2, Dallas, p. 575-587.

79- Turnau, E., 1999, Givetian palynostratigraphy and palynofacies: new data from the Bodzentyn Syncline (Holy Cross Mountains, central Poland): Review of  Palaeobotany and Palynology, v. 106, Issues 3-4, p. 237-271.

80- Turnau, E., and K., Narkiewicz, 2011, Biostratigraphical correlation of spore and conodont zonations within Givetian and ?Frasnian of the Lublin area (SE Poland), Article in Press, Accepted Manuscript-Note to users: Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology.

81- Turner, N., E., Spinner, and C., Soanes, 1989, Further studies on the palynology of the Upper Devonian and Lower Carboniferous transition strata at Burrington Combe, Somerset, England: Pollen et Spores, v. 31, p. 289–315.

82- Turner, N., E., Spinner, and J.K., Dorning, 1995, A palynological study of the Lower Carboniferous Lydebrook Sandstone and adjacent late Wenlock and Langsettian strata, Shropshire, England: Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, v. 84, Issues 3-4, p. 305-329.

83- Van Veen, P.M., 1981, Aspects of Late Devonian and Early Carboniferous palynology of southern Ireland. V. The Change in composition of palynological assemblages at the Devonian-Carboniferous boundary: Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, v. 34, p. 67–97.

84- Van der Zwan, C.J., and P.M., Van Veen, 1978, The Devonian-Carboniferous transition sequence in southern Ireland: Integration of Palaeogeography and Palynology, v. 1, p. 469–479.

85- Van der Zwan, C.J., 1980, Aspects of late devonian and early carboniferous palynology of southern Ireland. III. Palynology of devonian-carboniferous transition sequences with special reference to the bantry bay area, co. cork: Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, v. 30, p. 165-286.

86- Wicander, E.R., 1974, Upper Devonian Lower Mississippian Acritarchs and Prasinophycean Alge from Ohio, U.S.A: Paleontographica, Lfg. 1-3, Band 148, p. 9-43.

87- Wicander, E.R., 1975, Fluctuations in a late devonian-early Mississippian phytoplankton flora of Ohio, U.S.A: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v. 17, Issue 2, p. 89-108.

88- Wicander, R.E, and A.R., Loeblich, 1977, Organic-walled microphytoplankton and its stratigraphic significance from the Upper Devonian Antrim Shale, Indiana U.S.A: Palaeontographica Abteilung, B. 160, p. 69–165.

89- Wicander, R.E, Playford, G., 1985, Acritarchs and spores from the Upper Devonian Lime Creek Formation Iowa U.S.A: Micropaleontology, v. 13, p. 97–138.

90- Wicander, R.E, and G.D., Wood, 1997, The use of microphytoplankton and chitinozoans for interpreting transgressive/regressive cycles in the Rapid Member of the Cedar Valley Formation (Middle Devonian), Iowa, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, v. 98, Issues 1-2, p. 125-152.

 

 

Plate I.

Fig.1: Exochoderma irregulare Wicander, 1974.

Fig. 2: Multiplicisphaeridium varioramusum, Hashemi & Playford, 1998.

Fig. 3: Ammonidium loriferum  (Deunff), Lister, 1970.

Fig. 4:Maranhites perplexus Wicander & Playford, 1985.

Fig. 5: Papulogabata annulata Playford, 1981.

Fig. 6: Cymatiosphaera perimembrana Staplin,1962

Fig. 7: Cymatiosphaera perimembrana Staplin,1962.

Fig. 8: Polyedryxium embudum Cramer, 1964.

Fig. 9: Stellinium micropolygonale (Stockmans & Williere, 1960) Playford, 1977.

Fig. 10: Cymatiosphaera turbinata Wicander, 1977.

Fig. 11: Polyedryxium pharaonis Deunff, 1961.

Fig. 12: Cymatiosphaera perimembrana Staplin, 1962.

*Scale bar = 20 µm

 

Plate II.

Fig. 1: Solisphaeridium inaffectum  Playford in Playford and Dring, 1981.

Fig. 2: Solisphaeridium spinoglobosum (Staplin) Wicander, 1974.

Fig. 3: Gorgonisphaeridium condensum Playford, 1981.

Fig. 4: Dictyotidium litum Colbath, 1990.

Fig. 5: Dictyotidium craticulum (Wicander and Loeblich) Wicander and Playford, 1985.

Fig. 6: Melikeriopalla venulosa Playford, 1981.

Fig. 7: Gorgonisphaeridium ohioense (Winslow) Wicander, 1974.

Fig. 8: Gorgonisphaeridium discissum  Playford, 1981.

Fig. 9: Michrystridium stellatum Deflandre, 1945.

Fig. 10: Deltotosoma intonsum Playford, 1981.

Fig. 11: Horologinella horologia Staplin, Jardine et al., 1972.

Fig. 12: Dictyotidium araiomegronium Hashemi and Playford, 1998.

 

Plate III.

Fig. 1: Veryhachium pannuceum Wicander & Loeblich, Jr., 1977.

Fig. 2: Stellinium octoaster(Staplin) Jardine et al., 1972.

Fig. 3: Veryhachium downiei Stockmans & Williere, 1962.

Fig. 4: Daillydium pentaster  Staplin, Playford, 1981.

Fig. 5: Veryhachium inflatum Hashemi & Playford, 1998.

Fig. 6: Stellinium comptum Wicander  and Loeblich, 1977.

Fig. 7: Tornacia stela  Wicander, 1974.

Fig. 8: Unellium piriforme Rauscher, 1969.

Fig. 9: Unellium  winslowae Rauscher, 1969.

Fig. 10: Straitostella sparsa Hashemi & Playford, 1998.

Fig. 11: Chitinozoa.

Fig. 12: Scolecodont (Annelid Jaw).

 

Plate IV.

Fig. 1: Auroraspora torquata Higgs, 1975.

Fig. 2: Ancyrospora pluchra Owens, 1971.

Fig. 3: Lagenicula minutus Kimyai, 1979.

Fig. 4: Ancyrospora ampulla  Owens, 1971.

Fig. 5: Archaeoperisaccus opiparus Owens,1971.

Fig. 6: Hystricosporites reflexus Owens, 1971.

Fig. 7: Diducites mucronatus (Kedo) Van Veen, 1981.

Fig. 8: Densosporites rotatus Staplin, 1960.

Fig. 9: Geminospora lemurata Balme,1962.

Fig. 10: Verrucosisporites nitidus (Naumova) Playford, 1964.

Fig. 11: Hymenozonotriletes perplexa Balme & Hassel, 1962.

Fig. 12: Geminospora punctata Owens, 1971.

*Scale bar = 20 µm

 

Plate V.

Fig. 1: Indotriradiates explanatus (Luber) Playford, 1991.

Fig. 2: Grandispora mammillata Owens, 1971.

Fig. 3: Retusotriletes phillipsii Clendennig, Eames and Woods, 1980.

Fig. 4: Verrucosisporitespremnus Richardson, 1965.

Fig. 5: Rhabdosporites micropaxillus Owens, 1971.

Fig. 6: Retusotriletes distinctus Richardson, 1965.

Fig. 7: Grandispora famenensis(Naumova, 1953) Streel, 1986.

Fig. 8: Vallatisporites pussillites (Kedo) Dolbyand Neves, 1970.

Fig. 9: Retispora lepidophyta (Kedo) Playford, 1976.

Fig. 10: Emphanisporites rotatus McGregor, 1961.

Fig. 11: Geminospora verrucosa  Owens, 1971.

Fig. 12: Grandispora megista Balme, 1988.